dot-net code-smells comments edit

What's that smell? It could be your code...

Let's face it, writing good quality, guilt-free code is tough. There are just so many ways in which we can mess it up.

The common saying is that if you like the code you wrote six months ago, you haven't learned enough. For me, I feel like every week I'm finding out that code I wrote the previous week has some sort of new smell that I have never encountered before.

It's not that I'm constantly repeating the same mistakes; it's that I found a brand new way to make my code have an odor. I want to have dull, stink-free code - how hard can that be? Hard...

In this series of posts I'm going to identify common code smells and how we can de-stinkify the problem so we get reek-free code.

I'm going to start with the low-hanging fruit and progress to more complex and interesting smells.

First up: Unnecessary IEnumerable Materialization.

What the heck is that?

Simply put, it's when you call ToArray() / ToList() on an IEnumerable<T> to force the IEnumerable to load its items into memory.

To be clear, there is absolutely nothing wrong with using these methods in the right circumstance, but not everything warrants the use of this.

Let's first talk about where we would use these methods.

A good use-case is when you're querying a database via Entity Framework, NHibernate, LINQ-To-SQL, or some other ORM. When you use LINQ to query a database, the database isn't queried until you actually consume the LINQ expression. In other words, consider the following code (that uses Entity Framework):

var PeopleContext db = new PeopleContext();

var peopleOver30 = from p in db.People
                   where p.Age > 30
                   select p;


foreach (var person in peopleOver30) {

Let's break down what's happening:

  • We're instantiating the variable db as a PeopleContext
  • Then assigning a LINQ expression to the variable peopleOver30 to get all people whose age is over 30
  • Then disposing of db
  • Finally, we're iterating over peopleOver30

There's a problem with this: peopleOver30 is an IQueryable (which inherits from IEnumerable) and is dependent on db to retrieve the people over 30 from the database, but we've disposed of db before materializing peopleOver30. This will result in an exception being thrown because db has been told that it's no longer needed.

Let's instead initialize peopleOver30 like this:

var peopleOver30 = (from p in db.People
                   where p.Age > 30
                   select p).ToList();

By calling ToList() on the LINQ expression, we're triggering the underlying IQueryable to be processed, which will generate the required SQL from the LINQ expression and query the database to get the results, and return the results as a list of People.

This is a big difference.

In the original code, we were deferring the querying of the database until it was needed in the foreach loop, which was too late because db was already disposed of. In the second example, we're immediately querying the database and storing the results in a List, meaning peopleOver30 is no longer dependent on db.

So I've shown you a case where ToList() is needed. But that's not the point of this post. I want to show you cases where it is not needed.

Consider this:

public IEnumerable<Car> GetCars() {
    return new List<Car> {
        new Car {
            Make: "Toyota",
            Model: "Camry"
        new Car {
            Make: "Hyundai",
            Model: "Elantra"

public void SomeContrivedMethod() {
    IEnumerable<Car> cars = GetCars();

    if (cars.Any()) {
        foreach (var car in cars) {

If you use ReSharper, you'll notice that ReSharper is giving you the warning Possible multiple enumeration on cars because we're consuming cars twice (cars.Any() and foreach(var car in cars)). This is because cars is an IEnumerable, and ReSharper can't determine whether cars is materialized (i.e. stored in memory) or it has to do something like query a database (like the variable peopleOver30 was doing in our first example).

So, being one that likes having ReSharper-error-free files, you make a change to get rid of this error:

List<Car> cars = GetCars().ToList();

Problem solved, right? Now Resharper knows that this is a List, so we can't possibly be doing something like re-querying the database.

Here's the problem: even though ReSharper wasn't sure whether cars was materialized, we knew.


Because we can look at the code inside the method GetCars() and see that it's simply returning a List. By calling ToList() on an IEnumerable that's already storing a List, we're needlessly creating an duplicate List just to store the same values as the original.

In this case, ReSharper was falsely indicating that there may be an issue, so you can simply ignore this one (or suppress the error with a comment).

dot-net, web-api comments edit

I was reading this blog post about how to support STA threads in ASP.NET and the post has a solution for all ASP.NET technologies except for Web API. He added a comment saying he couldn't find a way to do it and opened it up for someone else to solve.

Challenge accepted!

But let's back up for a minute...before I describe how to do this, I should explain why we'd want to do this.

I recommend reading the aforementioned blog post because Mr. Strahl does a great job describing why this is sometimes required, but I'll provide a quick summary here.

By default, ASP.NET uses Multi-Threaded Apartment (MTA) threads, which are considerably more efficient than Single-Threaded Apartment (STA) threads, meaning we should be using MTA threads as much as possible to avoid incurring the significant overhead of STA threads.

However, in the event that you need to interface with a COM object or, in my client's case, render WPF FixedDocuments on the server side, you're required to force an ASP.NET request into an STA thread so you can successfully interface with objects that are required to stay on a specific thread.

Now that we know the why, let's dive into the how.

First, we need to come up with a way to create an STA thread. Since I'm no threading expert, I'm going to defer to people who know a lot more about threading than me: Microsoft. They were kind enough to create tons of samples for the Task Parallel Library. I'm not as interested in the samples as I am in the additional functionality that they provide with the samples. They say it's not production quality but I've never had any issues.

The code can be downloaded from this page and manually added to your project. Or you can choose the more efficient route of searching for a NuGet package that already puts everything together for you. I chose the latter:

Install-Package MSFT.ParallelExtensionsExtras

Now that we have the functionality to easily create STA threads, let's create an extension method to abstract away some boiler-plate:

public static class TaskFactoryExtensions
    private static readonly TaskScheduler _staScheduler = new StaTaskScheduler(numberOfThreads: 1);

    public static Task<TResult> StartNewSta<TResult>(this TaskFactory factory, Func<TResult> action)
        return factory.StartNew(action, CancellationToken.None, TaskCreationOptions.None, _staScheduler);

Since we want to utilize STA threads only when absolutely necessary, we need to have a way to determine when an action requires an STA thread:

[AttributeUsage(AttributeTargets.Method, AllowMultiple = false, Inherited = true)]
public class UseStaThreadAttribute : Attribute {}

Now for the magic - let's create a custom IHttpActionInvoker. Since the default one has most of what we need, we can inherit from that and override the InvokeActionAsync method:

public class StaThreadEnabledHttpActionInvoker : ApiControllerActionInvoker
    public override Task<HttpResponseMessage> InvokeActionAsync(HttpActionContext context, CancellationToken cancellationToken)
        // Determine whether action has attribute UseStaThread
        bool useStaThread = context.ActionDescriptor.GetCustomAttributes<UseStaThreadAttribute>().Any();

        // If it doesn't, simply return the result of the base method
        if (!useStaThread)
            return base.InvokeActionAsync(context, cancellationToken);

        // Otherwise, create an STA thread and then call the base method
        Task<HttpResponseMessage> responseTask = Task.Factory.StartNewSta(() => base.InvokeActionAsync(context, cancellationToken).Result);

        return responseTask;

And then we need to configure Web API to use our custom action invoker:

// Replaces the default action invoker to allow actions to be run using an STA thread
config.Services.Replace(typeof(IHttpActionInvoker), new StaThreadEnabledHttpActionInvoker());

Finally, let's create a sample controller to test it out:

public class ApartmentStateController : ApiController
    public string Mta()
        return Thread.CurrentThread.GetApartmentState().ToString();

    public string Sta()
        return Thread.CurrentThread.GetApartmentState().ToString();

That's it! When you go to /api/apartmentState/mta you'll see MTA and when you go to /api/apartmentState/sta you'll see STA.

personal comments edit

Finally, after years of saying I'm going to do it, I've finally started my blog!

So...what took so long?

Let's just say that I could give a seminar on procrastination. In fact, it's so near and dear to my heart that I actually wrote a poem about it when I was 12 - I wrote it 15 minutes before it was due because I needed something to hand in to my teacher.

And I figured the best time to start a blog is right now, when people are saying blogging isn't important anymore...

I'll mostly be blogging about ASP.NET MVC and Web API, but I'll also be blogging about front-end technologies since I'm splitting my time 50-50 between front and back end right now.

Stay tuned...